Mill was raised in the tradition of Philosophical Radicalism, made famous by Jeremy Bentham —John Austin —and his father James Mill —which applied utilitarian principles in a self-conscious and systematic way to issues of institutional design and social reform. Utilitarianism assesses actions and institutions in terms of their effects on human happiness and enjoins us to perform actions and design institutions so that they promote—in one formulation, maximize—human happiness. As documented in his AutobiographyMill was groomed from birth by his father to become the ultimate Victorian intellectual and utilitarian reformer. As part of this apprenticeship, Mill was exposed to an extremely demanding education, shaped by utilitarian principles.
Conclusion Introduction Adding alternative text for images is the first principle of web accessibility. It is also one of the most difficult to properly implement. The web is replete with images that have missing, incorrect, or poor alternative text.
Like many things in web accessibility, determining appropriate, equivalent, alternative text is often a matter of personal interpretation. Through the use of examples, this article will present our experienced interpretation of appropriate use of alternative text.
Important Also see our article on images for additional information about image accessibility. Alternative Text Basics Alternative text provides a textual alternative to non-text content in web pages.
We will be discussing alternative text for images only, though the principles can be applied to media, applets, or other non-text web content. Alternative text serves several functions: It is read by screen readers in place of images allowing the content and function of the image to be accessible to those with visual or certain cognitive disabilities.
It is displayed in place of the image in browsers if the image file is not loaded or when the user has chosen not to view images. It provides a semantic meaning and description to images which can be read by search engines or be used to later determine the content of the image from page context alone.
The key principle is that computers and screen readers cannot analyze an image and determine what the image presents. Alternative text can be presented in two ways: Within the alt attribute of the img element.
Within the context or surroundings of the image itself. This means that the alt attribute sometimes called the alt tag, though technically this is incorrect is not the only mechanism for providing the content and function of the image. This information can also be provided in text adjacent to the image or within the page containing the image.
Important The term alternative text, as used in this article, refers to the text equivalent for an image, regardless of where that text resides. It does not refer solely to the alt attribute of the image tag. Alt attribute will be used when referring to the attribute itself, which often will, but does not exclusively, contain the alternative text.
Every image must have an alt attribute. Images without an alt attribute are likely inaccessible.A penalty will not be imposed for violations in certain circumstances, such as if: the failure to comply was not due to willful neglect, and was corrected during a day period after the entity knew or should have known the failure to comply had occurred (unless the period is extended at the discretion of OCR); or.
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1. An amicus curiae brief that brings to the attention of the Court relevant matter not already brought to its attention by the parties may be of considerable help to the Court.
An amicus curiae brief that does not serve this purpose burdens the Court, and its filing is not favored. An amicus curiae brief may be filed only by an attorney admitted to practice before this Court as provided in.