His language is song, and his wor "When philosophy conceives the essence of being as Logos, it is already the Logos of domination--commanding, mastering, directing reason, to which man and nature are to be subjected" "In its refusal to accept as final the limitations imposed upon freedom and happiness by the reality principle, in its refusal to forget what can be, lies the critical function of phantasy" "The Orphic Eros transforms being: His language is song, and his work is play" For a thorough and efficient review of Marcuse's arguments, see and Marcuse bases his arguments on Freud's fundamental observation that a certain amount of repression of instincts is necessary to adapt human subjects to reality, and that this adaptation creates increasingly complicated civilizations while keeping destructive instincts in check. Marcuse then adds that technology is now at a point where the subject suffers 'surplus repression,' above and beyond what is strictly needed to maintain civilization.
It corresponds largely but not entirely to the distinction between unconscious and conscious processes.
The individual exists, as it were, in two different dimensions, characterized by different mental processes and principles. The difference between these two dimensions is a genetic-historical as well as a structural one: The individual comes to the traumatic realization that full and painless gratification of his needs is impossible.
And after this experience of disappointment, a new principle of mental functioning gains ascendancy. The reality principle supersedes the pleasure principle: However, the psychoanalytic interpretation reveals that the reality principle enforces a change not only in the form and timing of pleasure but in its very substance.
The adjustment of pleasure to the reality principle implies the subjugation and diversion of the destructive force of instinctual gratification, of its incompatibility with the established societal norms and relations, and, by that token, implies the transubstantiation of pleasure itself. With the establishment of the reality principle, the human being which, under the pleasure principle, has been hardly more than a bundle of animal drives, has become an organized ego.
Under the reality principle, the human being develops the function of reason: Man acquires the faculties of attention, memory, and judgment. He becomes a conscious, thinking subject, geared to a rationality which is imposed upon him from outside.
Otherwise, the mental apparatus is effectively subordinated to the reality principle. However, neither his desires nor his alteration of reality are henceforth his own: If absence from repression is the archetype of freedom, then civilization is the struggle against this freedom.
The replacement of the pleasure principle by the reality principle is the great traumatic event in the development of man — in the development of the genus phylogenesis as well as of. According to Freud, this event is not unique but recurs throughout the history of mankind and of every individual.
Phylogenetically, it occurs first in the primal horde, when the primal father monopolizes power and pleasure and enforces renunciation on the part of the sons. Ontogenetically, it occurs during the period of early childhood, and submission to the reality principle is enforced by the parents and other educators.
But, both on the generic and on the individual level, submission is continuously reproduced.
The rule of the primal father is followed, after the first rebellion, by the rule of the sons, and the brother clan develops into institutionalized social and political domination. The reality principle materializes in a system of institutions. And the individual, growing up within such a system, learns the requirements of the reality principle as those of law and order, and transmits them to the next generation.
The fact that the reality principle has to be re-established continually in the development of man indicates that its triumph over the pleasure principle is never complete and never secure. The unconscious retains the objectives of the defeated pleasure principle. Turned back by the external reality or even unable to reach it, the full force of the pleasure principle not only survives in the unconscious but also affects in manifold ways the very reality which has superseded the pleasure principle.
The return of the repressed makes up the tabooed and subterranean history of civilization. And the exploration of this history reveals not only the secret of the individual but also that of civilization.
|Green anarchism - Wikipedia||Top Nonfiction list is a concise selection of books that provides the reader with an understanding of the social and natural world. It teaches world civilisation - East and West - from the beginning to the present, including history, economics, sociology, literature, science, philosophy, and religion.|
|Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6: Reason and Revolution cited on p.|
|Sorry! Something went wrong!||Eros and Civilization Marcuse describes a utopia based on aesthetics, sensuality and play, as opposed to our current construction of civilization based on reason, production and repression.|
|The Tragedy of the Commons Science 13, December|
Repression is a historical phenomenon. The effective subjugation of the instincts to repressive controls is imposed not by nature but by man.While some Frankfurt School critical texts failed to accurately model the experience of our times (Habermas' Transformation of the Public Sphere, for instance, predicted a decreased role of the public sphere in political decision making - a prediction ultimately undermined by the advent of the internet), Marcuse One-Dimensional Man remains a compelling and frighteningly accurate analysis.
Eros & Civilization, by Herbert Marcuse, Contents.
Herbert Marcuse: Eros and Civilization (Boston: Beacon, ) Analysis of the interpretation of history in Freud's psychology The Transformation of Sexuality into Eros The abolition of domination Effect on the sex instincts.
Sigmund Freud: Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis. Freud’s article on psychoanalysis appeared in the 13th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Freud may justly be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age. His creation of psychoanalysis was at once a theory of. Eros: The Myth of Ancient Greek Sexuality is a controversial book that lays bare the meanings Greeks gave to sex.
Contrary to the romantic idealization of sex dominating our culture, the Greeks saw eros as a powerful force of nature, potentially dangerous, and in need of control by society: Eros the Destroyer, not Cupid the Insipid, fired the Greek iridis-photo-restoration.com destructiveness of eros .
Herbert Marcuse's Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud was a sensational bestseller when it first appeared in (long before fancy agents, big marketing campaigns, and social media)/5. Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud (; second edition, ) is a book by the German philosopher and social critic Herbert Marcuse, in which the author proposes a non-repressive society, attempts a synthesis of the theories of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud, and explores the potential of collective memory to be a source.