Leadership Theories Behavioral Theory This theory focuses especially on what highly effective leaders do. This theory is often preferred by educators because behaviors can rather easily be seen and duplicated. The major criticisms are that it doesn't help leaders know when to use certain behaviors and to share their motives for using those behaviors.
While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as "The Big Five" personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills.
Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes. Do not distinguish between the leadership attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences.
Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership. Attribute pattern approach[ edit ] Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach.
Behavioral and style theories[ edit ] Main article: Managerial grid model In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.
To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate.
In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision makingpraise and criticism feedbackand the management of the group tasks project management according to three styles: They were able to narrow their findings to two identifiable distinctions  The first dimension was identified as "Initiating Structure", which described how a leader clearly and accurately communicates with their followers, defines goals, and determine how tasks are performed.
These are considered "task oriented" behaviors The second dimension is "Consideration", which indicates the leader's ability to build an interpersonal relationship with their followers, to establish a form of mutual trust.
These are considered "social oriented" behaviors. Although they similar findings as the Ohio State studies, they did contribute an additional behavior identified in leaders.
This was participative behavior; allowing the followers to participate in group decision making and encouraged subordinate input. Another term used to describe this is "Servant Leadership", which entails the leader to reject a more controlling type of leadership and allow more personal interaction between themselves and their subordinates.
The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in and suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.
Skinner is the father of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future. Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee.
This employee does not show up to work on time every day. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time.In this approach the subordinates or employees have very minute opportunity to make a decision by themselves most of the time the leader used to dictate his employees and control them by himself.
This approach is the extreme type of transactional leadership. The total pattern of leaders’ actions as perceived by their employees is called leadership style. It represents the leaders’ philosophy, skills and attitudes in practice. It is necessary to study the different leadership styles from which an appropriate style can be selected, depending upon the.
Broadly, there are four distinct approaches to leadership, viz. Traits theory, Behaviouristic theory, Contingency theory and Charismatic theories of leadership.
Traits Theory Ask people what good leadership is, and it's quite likely you will get a response that suggests good leadership can somehow be defined in terms of traits or characteristics.
NRS Nursing Management and Leadership Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management Nurses demonstrate the core values of professionally caring for others in two different prospects.
Huber (), notes that “nurses have two basic roles: care providers and care coordinators” (p. 3). Leadership is a key predictor of employee, team, and organizational creativity and innovation. Research in this area holds great promise for the development of intriguing theory and impactful policy implications, but only if empirical studies are conducted rigorously.
Classical leadership. What is leadership? Here Michele Erina Doyle and Mark K. Smith explore some of the classical models of leadership. In particular they look at earlier approaches to studying the area via the notions of traits and behaviours, and to what has become known as contingency theory.