Population, Sustainability, and Earth's Carrying Capacity: A framework for estimating population sizes and lifestyles that could be sustained without undermining future generations by Gretchen C. Daily and Paul R.
Due to globalization and the impact of world milk price changes, dairy farmers need to find ways of reducing costs and increasing returns in order to be more competitive. The objective of this study is to provide a detailed farm economic analysis of extensive, intensive and traditional dairy production systems in Bangladesh by using the Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations TIPI-CAL model in order to identify points of intervention for cost reduction.
Two typical farms one average-sized and one large-sized from each production systems were selected in three regions.
The large-scale intensive production system had the lowest milk production costs Milk yield increased and the cost of milk production decreased with increasing farm size. The high opportunity cost for own factors of production land, family labour and capitalthe differences in economies of scale and institutional support infrastructure, provision of support services such as artificial insemination and veterinary services are the key drivers for differences in costs of production in different systems and low profitability.
From these results it is suggested that, farmers need to adopt new cost reducing management strategies and the government should take initiatives to reform the institutional arrangements by liberalizing input markets, developing basic infrastructure and facilitating access to yield increasing technology which can, ultimately, reduce costs, improve on productivity and farm profit.
The majority of the dairy cattle are in the hands of smallholder dairy producers. The numbers of dairy farms are estimated at about 1. Also dairying is part of the mixed farming systems in Bangladesh Saadullah and a predominant source of income, nutrition and jobs Miyan ; Haque Dairying is also considered a strong tool to develop a village micro economy of Bangladesh Shamsuddin et al in order to improve rural livelihoods and to alleviate rural poverty.
More regular cash income can be generated through market-oriented dairies and more employment per value added unit has been observed in dairying than in crops Asaduzzaman ; Omore et al There are three major dairy production systems in the country based on input and outputs: Milk production growth has increased from 4.
The key drivers for this increased market demand for dairy products are the rapid urbanization, increased population growth, and rise in absolute income Delgado et al According to Bangladesh Economic Reviewthe per annum growth rate of 7.
In order to take advantage of emerging market demands for reducing their poverty, smallholders have to face challenges to improve production costs and productivity Uddin et al b.
The recent historical rise in world food prices has further aggravated the situation of dairy input prices e. This increasing input price coupling with recent historic fall of milk price push the dairy farmers in more difficult situation.
The institutional arrangement in the study areas does not favour dairy farmers. The economic situation of the dairy farmers is aggravated by lack of basic infrastructure, poor access to artificial insemination and veterinary services, disorganised market structure and lack of access to technological facilities.
Therefore, there is a growing need for information about detail economic production parameters to enhance competitiveness of both the factor market and product market, locally and internationally.
While farmers need to know more about the economic indicators such as cost and profitability, research on this aspect is very limited and controversial Saadullah ; Alam ; Rao and Odermatt ; Khan This creates the necessity of conducting research on detailed economic indicators considering not only profitability but also input prices, factor market, product market as well as productivity.
Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge on detailed economic parameters of milk production systems especially at farm level Ndambi et al which is also true in the case of Bangladesh dairying.
Studies show that management strategies that ensure low cost milk production and favour local competitiveness compared to foreign production as well as high returns from dairying are the key incentives for farmers to continue their business Ndambi and Hemme For this reason, this study focuses on in-depth economic analysis to compare different farming systems extensive, intensive and traditional in terms of costs, profit and productivity in three regions Dinajpur, Sirajgonj and Kishorgonj of Bangladesh.
The analysis is based on a typical-farm approach. A panel of dairy experts was formed to select the typical farm in each region and validate the data. A typical farm represents the most common milk production systems in a particular area or region or country Hemme The incentives for this study is to find the optimum ways for minimizing the cost and increasing the profit to become competitive which is essential for future sustainability of dairy development in Bangladesh.
In a statistical sense, typical farm is the modal farm based on calculation of mode but not the average farms Dillon and Skold The typical farm has an average management and performance and produces a high proportion of the total milk in the region compared to the total milk in the country.
This method has been refined to suit its applicability on an international scale. The limitation of IFCN method is that it relies on the selection of few typical farms one small farm and one large from each production system to represent the whole dairy farm population in the area.
The selection of typical farm is done in such a way that it represents the majority of the dairy farms in the study areas. This method is beneficial in a complex dairy production system with scarce resources and limited data and less time to understand the milk production systems because it uses the less data but produces better results than other available economic analytical methods Ndambi and Hemme This is because of its strong scientific basis, capability to have access to data on all existing costs, transparency in analysis and comparability in international scale in the arena of costs of agricultural production and produce results which are closer to the reality than the statistical average Isermeyer et al ; Hemme et al ; Holzner The use of typical farm approach in agricultural research is not new rather it has history of century.Communication Situation Analysis The rapid advancement of modern technology has empowered us with multitudes of avenues for effective delivery of our communications.
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Abstract USA World Bank (UWB) is faced. Effective communication is a fundamental requirement for agile modeling.
You need to recognize that you have several communication options available to you, as Figure 1 shows, and that you want to pick the best communication option for your current situation.
Communication Situation Analysis Paper Today, there has been an influx in technology advancements in the workplace that have streamlined office tasks and improved employee productivity.
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