A contrastive study on human body

There is a great deal idioms that are color- based idioms. The differences between Vietnamese and English culture resulted in many differences in their languages and idiom is not an exception. Although studying idioms is a very important for language learner, many of the learners cannot be able to know the meaning of an idiom correctly since they are not familiar with the differences and similarities in English and Vietnamese idioms.

A contrastive study on human body

Poppy Siahaan Siahaan, Poppy. Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages. A contrastive study on metaphorical concepts from the source domain ORGAN in English and in Indonesian Poppy Siahaan Abstract In cognitive linguistics there is a growing interest in pursuing the question of how metaphors are used in cultural models see, e.

It is in this context that the present paper studies cultural models of the Indonesian concept of LIVER as the centre of both emotional and mental activities. There are two aspects of the cultural model that I would like to present in this paper as the motivation for this conceptu- alization.

First, there is the old ritual of liver divination in Indonesia, according to which the liver is regarded as the seat of life. Second, the ethnic religious be- liefs in Indonesia regard the liver as the part of the body in which the living soul is located.

By examining linguistic expressions in the present-day Indonesian language, known as Bahasa Indonesia, I demonstrate that these two almost forgotten and hardly practised cultural models of the LIVER as the A contrastive study on human body of both emotional and mental activities are still reflected in the present-day Indonesian language.

Indonesian, metaphor, metonymy, liver, liver divination, living soul. Introduction The conceptualization of various human body parts or organs as seats of emotional and mental activities in different languages reveals different cultural models that have been developed and shared by societies.

In Indonesian, the association of the liver organ with emotional and mental activities also derives from cultural tradition and ethnic religious beliefs that have been shared by the Indonesian societies.

By exploring this cultural model, I wish to shed light on this specific worldview of Indonesian speakers and to con- tribute to a greater understanding of different cultural universes. In Indonesian the word hati primarily denotes the liver, but it also means what are referred to as heart and mind in English, so that both these English glosses are currently used see Goddard Consider the following linguistic evidence: The fact that Indonesians regard the LIVER as the seat of emotional and mental activities has become one of the more challenging topics of discussion with which an Indonesian speaker is often confronted.

In such discussions, the following questions typically arise: From modern medicine we know that the liver is the largest organ in our body which processes blood and helps to clean un- wanted substances out of it. One could then argue that the anatomical or configurational aspect of the organ provides the conceptual foundation for the mental understanding of the organ, i.

Yet the configurational aspect does not rule out the possi- bility of other organs being source domains of conceptual mappings.

This ahistorical analysis seems to be too limited in scope, since it cannot provide any explanation for why different inner organs are used to refer to as ab- stract concepts in different cultures. Second, as the newer approach to situated and cultural embodiment just referred to indicates, there is a growing interest in exploring the historical and cultural basis of human cognition taking into account cultural traditions and models that are commonly shared in societies and from which our con- ceptualizations of abstract notions derive.

For the domain of emotions, Geeraerts and Grondelaers have convincingly shown that one should consider the historical and cultural background that provides the basis for the emotional concept of ANGER.

Yu this volume has also demonstrated that the conceptualization of the Chinese HEART as the seat of emotional and mental activities is based on ancient Chinese philosophy and traditional Chinese medicine.

According to the tradition of liver divination, the liver of a sacrificed animal is its most important organ because messages from gods or divine spirits to human beings in this world are written on it.

A contrastive study on human body

Moreover, human characters and their fates are also believed to be written on the liver organs of sacrificed animals. Finally, I examine linguistic evidence from the present-day Indone- sian language and compare it with English. Cosmology and cultural models in ancient Indonesian societies 2.

Liver divinations in ethnic religions The conceptualization of the LIVER as emotional and mental activities β€” as it appears in metaphorical mapping in the present-day Indonesian lan- guage β€” reflects a cultural model that is widespread among Indonesian peo- ple.

This aspect of the cultural model has its basis in an animistic belief that the liver is the seat of life. Before the arrival of world religions, animistic belief was very much alive in Indonesia. One of the rituals carried out in accordance with this belief was sacrificing animals and reading their liver organs, a practice known as liver divination Schefold ; Hoskins ; Howell The ritual of liver divination reflects the animistic worldview of indigenous Indonesian people who believe that human characters and fates are written on the liver organ by divine spirits or gods.

Although liver divination is hardly prac- tised in modern life, and most Indonesian people have converted to major world religions such as Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity, the conceptualization of the LIVER as the seat of life is still widely manifested in the present-day Indonesian language.

Before discussing the linguistic expressions of these underlying liver metaphors, I will first give a brief account of liver divination.

Divination is an ancient kind of cosmological study in which human be- ings try to interpret certain signs of things that exist in this world in order to foretell the future. Apart from liver divination there are other kinds of divi- nation, for example divination by dreams, divination by fire, etc.

Astrology is also a kind of divination. In the last part of this section it will be shown that liver divination is not an exclusively Indonesian tradition, but that it was also practised by the ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Etruscans.

The liver divination of sacrificed animals is carried out during ritual feasts in Indonesia.In China, scholars made a great number of researches on human body words. Zhao Yanfang () gave a detail introduction on the theories of cognitive linguistics.

Hu Chun () made an analysis on human body words from three aspects: the position of human body words in daily life, domain of human body words and the meaning stracture. all entries for parts of the human body. Equally, Tiberius and Schoonheim () list these terms amongst the seven most frequently used body-part terms in Dutch (in a list of 59 body-part terms).

Abstract.

A contrastive study on human body

This paper presents the results of a study on metaphors relating to some upper parts of human body between English and Vietnamese. There are four upper parts of human body consists of eye, nose, ear and mouth are chosen for data analysis.

A Contrastive Study of Body Metaphors in English and Chinese. Thoa Nguyen Thi Yen and others published A Contrastive Analysis of metaphors relating to parts of human body in English and. on the human mind. People of different languages, different places This paper is aimed at the detailed study of two of the most A Contrastive Study of the Grammar Translation and the Direct Methods of Teaching.

Dr. Sayeh S Abdullah. L. 3rd International Conference on Business, Economics, Management and Behavioral Sciences . II- A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE COLOR IDIOMS II.1 Description II Color idioms in English Color idioms are not only expressing color-meaning for different concepts, but they also have their own special meanings with every different colors.

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